Landscape Series

All of the following artists worked in series which suggests an investigate spirit or pursuit of perfection. They’re not creating pretty landscapes for the sake of creation but looking for answers in their observations.

Monet 1840 – 1926

Monet is often credited with being one of the founders of Impressionism, he was influenced by Turner’s work and his quest to paint light and colour, trying to capture the changing light and seasons. His emphasis was to create an ‘impression’ of a transitory moment, an atmosphere or essence rather than a detailed representation. He painted the same subject at different times of day and in different weather conditions, observing the light.

Monet convinced his fellow artists to get out of the studio and paint outside. He insisted that painting should take place whilst outside looking at the chosen subject matter and not finished in the studio. This resulted in changing methods and techniques, with the sun passing, there was not time to paint in a leisurely, layered way, artists had to be faster, less precise, with less focus on detail. It led to a looser, more expressive style that did not appeal to the critics at the time.

It clearly preceded modernist abstract art of the twentieth century, whilst moving away from the traditional academic style. The Impressionists, although they were rejected by the French Salon, are generally accepted as the forerunners of Modern Art.

His Le Déjeuner Sur L’Herbe, 1865-66, is painted after Manet’s original but his version depicts the light falling on the leaves and people, and his people lounge comfortably amidst the landscape. The focus was on the moment of the picnic, rather than the landscape or people.

His work Impression: Sunrise, Le Havre, 1872, is the source of the term Impressionism and was ridiculed by critics. It shows a hazy, diffuse light with indistinct background shapes, the brushstrokes are longer, starting to move away from his more detailed works.

Wild Poppies near Argenteuil, 1873, is a vibrant work that shows his growing interest in colour, with the use of complementary colours,  contrasting red and greens, blues and yellows. He had become aware that colours contained other colours, e.g. browns could be represented by red, yellow and blue.

Whilst the work may often give the ‘impression’ of an event or moment in time, Monet’s works were very considered, great thought and planning were given to the placement of colours. Instead of being accurate representations, he was preoccupied with reflections, water and the enveloppe, the ‘envelope’ of light surrounding everything.

Monet spent decades studying his garden at Giverny, recording it and the seasons and painting waterlilies. The clouds are reflected in the water, amongst the lilies, which adds depth and also a dream-like quality. These paintings got bigger in size, so big he got rid of the frames so as not to distract the view from the lilies and  his fabulous pond.

From 1890 to 1891 he painted nearly thirty paintings of haystacks, Haystack (Effect of Snow and Sun), studying the changing light and the changing season and the effects of these on the stacks. Originally he thought that two canvases would be able to express the light but soon realised he needed many more due to the subtleties caused by the changing weather and seasonal light. By using the repeated image of the haystack, he could depict the light in every way.

Cézanne (1839 – 1906)

Cézanne was also a member of the Impressionists but after criticism and rejection from the Salon he returned to his native Aix-en-Provence. He had some funds so was able to paint at leisure and pursue his own interests. He was particularly concerned with the true forms of nature, especially structure. He spent many hours studying light on surfaces. He noted that the three fundamental shapes were geometrical, namely cylinder, cone and sphere and decided the fundamental colours were the primary and secondary colours with which the Impressionists had experimented.

He was aiming for artistic perfection, which he described as painting ‘Poussin from nature’. He was looking for the harmony and balance of shapes that Poussin so successfully created, and looking for new ways in which to do it. Cézanne believed that the old rules were contrary to nature and painting from  nature was now paramount. The problem was how to achieve the solidity of form using Impressionist strokes and dots, without creating blurriness and disharmony, and in colour was problematic. Attempting to bring the bright colours of nature seemed unrealistic and flat. Cézanne seemed somehow to master the challenge.

One of his obsessions was Mont Sainte-Victoire, the mountain just outside Aix, which he painted over sixty times.  The summer light is obvious yet the landscape is firm and rooted, patterns of lines are repeated and the overall effects show space and expanse, giving structure and harmony. Everything is considered, from the vertical and horizontal lines, to colour, to direction of brushstrokes.

Often called the father of ‘modern art’ because of his efforts to create harmony through composition and colour, Cézanne was later known as a Post-Impressionist as his work moved on from the original group’s preoccupation with light. He progressed from the small spots of colour instead using larger patches, stripping down the detail to focus on structure. This ‘flat depth’ utilised blocks of colour to represent space and depth. His later work became more abstract and was of major influence to the Cubists.

Hockney (1937 – )

A contributor to the Pop Art movement, Hockney may be better known for his California landscapes of the 1960s, vivid, stylised paintings depicting the relaxed lifestyles of American, with their swimming pools. He painted many pools, attempting to capture transient moments, and the changing movement of water. He used fast-drying acrylic paint which matched the colourful sunny climate of California.

Painted  in 1967, A Bigger Splash seemed to perfectly embody the British sentiment that the war was behind us and the outlook was optimistic for the future. There is no visible human presence but the suggestion is there, beneath the surface, what is left is just the splash and ripple of the water.

Moving Focus (1984-7) is a series made after travelling in Mexico. Hockney became interested in printing and lithographs which allowed him to work in layers. These panaromic works were large in size, which allowed him to show different viewpoints as if someone was walking along, taking in different views from many angles. The fixed viewpoint is intermingled with the multiple viewpoint to give an interesting effect. He plays around with composition and perspective, examining how we see and the role that memory plays.

His next period of work involved making collages with polaroids. He used a camera to draw with, using multiple images to create a larger image called ‘joiners’, see Pearlblossom Highway. They allowed him to represent time and movement, and showed multiple viewpoints to give a three dimensional effect. The ‘joiners’ permits a view closer to the way we really see things.

Initially the polaroids were arranged in a grid before he progressed to collages, using 35mm prints, making the image more abstract.

More recently Hockney returned to his Yorkshire roots to paint outdoors, painting a series from one spot in Woldgate Woods. These paintings show the landscape through the changing seasons, repeating motifs. Some are made in watercolour which allowed him to work quickly to capture the changing light. He first sits for a few hours to observe before working quickly to put it down on paper. They are very colourful, vivid works which seem to elevate the woods in an idealised way. They are also very large in scale, one even bigger than Monet’s waterlilies. His version of landscape has become bigger, brighter and bolder, a celebration of Northern landscape. It’s not too everyone’s taste, some critics have called them repetitive and gaudy, like Matisse meets Disney¹.

Nevertheless, what Hockney has done is similar to Cézanne and his beloved mountain. He is clearly enamoured with the region and his works demonstrate this if nothing else.

Peter Doig (1959- )

Doig is a contemporary artist who paints imagined landscapes, they are enchanted and simultaneously unsettling. He uses photographs as source material to create a land that combines real life and fantasy, often picturing water and canoes, sometimes populated with figures that have hidden features, i.e. hats and glasses, blinds are pulled down putting a veil over everything. They are not quite approachable, there is mystery here amongst the paradise, he questions reality yet with an over-riding sense of serenity.

His painting Swamped, sold for £16 million in 2015. He is reputed to have brought beauty back to painting landscapes, his works are full of colour yet show the paint marks and blobs which are part of the works. They are sometimes described as magic realism, meaning he brings beauty to the most ordinary scene, they do seem almost other worldly, almost dreamlike. This effect is achieved through unusual colour combinations and interesting angles, this is not realism.

The Architects Home in the Ravine, shows an almost inaccessible house, blocked by tree branches, which themselves become the focus of the piece. Instead of the house in the background being the subject, in spite of the title, the viewer is held back from entering by the scene-grabbing trees which demand our attention.

Some of his work refers to Canada where he lived for some years when younger, in White Creep, we see a forbidding mass of snow, it is not the mountain or the sky that dominates but the enormous density of snow. He’s turning traditional focus from the land towards the elements and nature.

Another series concentrated on Le Corbusier’s apartments in France, Concrete Cabin, there’s an attractive designer building, with all that living there suggests, yet the huge trees dominate and overshadow the otherwise idyllic scene. It shows a glimpse as if we were walking through the woods to suddenly come upon the buildings. Our view is hindered which creates tension and drama.

Gillian Carnegie (1971-)

Nominated for the Turner Prize in 2005, Carnegie is an acclaimed painter in the traditional categories of landscape, portrait and still life but her approach questions them. Often challenging the accepted norms for composition, light, colour and technique, she has created a number of series, including woodlands and cats.  They appear to be traditional but on a second glance there is more to consider, they raise many questions. The thickness of the paint stops the viewer from getting too close.

Black Square, 2008 is one of a series of monochrome landscapes depicted in darkness; painting in such dark colours raises questions about light and visibility and puts an emphasis on the texture. The painting becomes the focus, the texture and materiality are clearly of importance. It questions the very act of painting itself and through this Carnegie is examining the concept of art and traditions of landscape painting.

Carnegie also use photographs as source material. Her work is said to be lacking in narrative and colour but her works are very considered and significant. Whilst many of the artists mentioned here have focused on light and representing light, Carnegie has examined darkness and representing the lack of light in muted or monochrome tones, an interesting departure from the quest for light.

 

Footnotes

  1. Cumming, Laura, 22nd January 2012, David Hockney: A Bigger Picture Review, The Guardian

Bibliography

Pickeral, Tamsin, 2005, Turner, Whistler, Monet, London, Flame Tree Publishing

Gombrich, E.H., 2016, The Story of Art, London, Phaidon Press

Swinglehurt, 1994, Edmund, The Life and Works of Cézanne, Parragon

Farthing, Stephen, 2010, Art: The Whole Story, London, Thames and Hudson

 

Resources

Tate Gallery Website

Searle, Adrian, 16th January 2012, David Hockney Landscapes: The Wold is not Enough, The Guardian

Massie, Claudia, 10th August 2013, London Peter Doig: Places of Enchantment, The Spectator

 

Jones, Jonathan, 16th May 2015, Stroke of Genius: Peter Doig’s Eerie Art Whisks the Mind to Enchanted Places, The Guardian

Gottam, F.G., 31st January 2008, Peter Doig, A Perfectionist in Paradise, The Independent

Jeffries, Stuart, 5th September 2012, Peter Doig: The Outsider Comes Home, The Guardian

Buck, Louisa, 23rd June 2017, The Quietly Transfixing Artist Gillian Carnegie Puts on Her First London Show for Eight Years, The Telegraph

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Sketchbook Walk

I decided to potter around my own garden as I would like to make changes in it so thought it was a good idea to go out and study it. It is quite overgrown in places and the wildness appealed to me. There’s an ongoing battle, us against nature, which I thought would be interesting to document.

My first image is where the gazebo used to be and where some container plants had been moved temporarily. I am investigating this theme of human absence at the moment so this sketch appealed to me on that level too.

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patio and plants in pencil

 

I chose this primarily for the composition, the different shapes, the round pots against the geometric bricks, and the strong verticals of the budding plants. This lacks a bit of depth too, and I found it challenging to fit everything in. Only afterwards I thought perhaps the image lacked colour.

I realised I should use more colour so decided to use watercolour pencils. I really did not like the drawing so used a paint brush to water them down somewhat. I did not like the effect of this either to I decided to draw back into with an ink pen.

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picnic bench in watercolour pencils and ink pen

Adding the ink improved it, I like the verticals from the trees and the cross angles from the picnic bench. This image appeals to me as, although the main subject is the picnic bench, it’s as if nature creeping slowly in to dominate. The bench works well to divide the background from the foreground, and thus the different textures are also divided. The resulting composition is more interesting than I imagined, due to all of the differing lines.

My third drawing I drew a pile of grass my husband made in the front garden. I picked it because I thought it was a bit of a different image but when drawing it I really hated it!

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haystack in coloured pencils

Whilst the hay pile was the most interesting to draw, there was a lot of grass going on in the view and it was hard to distinguish between the foreground and the middleground. I really detested drawing the back shrubs and trees. Sometimes the minutiae of detail irritates me as it did here. I think the background looks quite childlike so I scribbled vertical lines over it to make it recede. This is not a great sketch although the verticals may add a bit of interest.

The weather has been so overcast of late that everything looks dark and depressing, even though it is summer it has been dark skies. This probably has influenced my mood somewhat, maybe I am expressing my dissatisfaction with the weather!

My final image is a small shot of the birdhouse and the stone wall which I like, with one of my favourite plants, the cordyline.

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birdhouse and garden wall in coloured pencils

Although the drawing isn’t particularly skillful, I like the horizontal lines of the walls echoing the horizontals of the fence. These lines are broken up by the foliage and the main focus, the birdhouse. There doesn’t seem to be much depth here, I’m not sure the middle ground of the plants on top of the wall is well represented, I would say it is lacking depth.

For all of these images the sky has been overcast, when it wasn’t raining so light direction wasn’t really an issue here. I have chosen different patterns, juxtaposed verticals and horizontals and tried to create interesting compositions. Not my finest work

Assignment Two

It was only when drawing the sketches around the house that I really started looking at furniture as a subject. I felt like I was drawing empty spaces as normally these spaces are frequently occupied. It made me think about absence, although we’re not physically there we do leave something of themselves behind.

I started to obsess with chairs, obviously of Vincent Van Gogh’s chair. This lead me to drawing chairs, lots of chairs, hard, wooden chairs and soft, fabric armchairs. I liked the way Van Gogh had included some personal effects so I tried one with a book and my glasses. I added fabric, a throw, some clothes somebody had left lying around. I looked at interiors, stumbled upon David Hockney’s desk, an everyday item, so functional and yet so overlooked, do we even see it anymore.

I looked at Vanessa Bell Conversation at Asheham House 1912 and was inspired by how she added herself to the painting by leaving her empty chair, we can’t see her but her presence is felt. She is very much a part of that conversation, as if she just slipped out to capture it.

I soon realised the importance of chairs in art and discovered Gerhard Richter’s chair and saw how he transformed a simple chair into so much more, reminiscent of the Pop Art movement think Andy Warhol. This idea of something so banal, so ordinary having an emotional element really appealed to me and that’s when the decision was made to draw a chair.

Out of habit more than anything, I started off drawing in pencil and charcoal but as I needed to do this in colour I decided to experiment with pastels, thinking they would be similar. I had to do some research on pastels and by coincidence found a second-hand book by Barbara Benedetti Newton¹ that gave me a good start on how to go about this.

My first sketch was a plain old chair in pastels

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chair in chalk pastels

I liked the effect of the pastels, I was experimenting here with different marks, trying out different pastelling techniques, crosshatching, light marks with the edge of the pastel, heavier marks with the side of the pastel to block in colour. It seemed evident I could make a variety of marks, something which I wasn’t sure of beforehand and hadn’t been as successful with in an earlier exercise (Project 2 Exercise 2). I decided to continue with pastels.

By this stage I had decided I liked the fluffy throw’s contrast against the leathery cushion of the chair. One mistake I made early one was to sketch the image in charcoal first before using the pastels but I learnt that it is too dark, too muddy against the light pastels so had to use a different coloured pastel.

My second sketch was to attempt to fix down the composition idea I had of a three quarter chair, at an angle with the furry throw added for contrast. This too looked quite interesting. I liked the angles and hard lines, softened by the fluffiness of the fabric.

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chair with throw in chalk pastels

This time I used the chunky pastels to block in the colours and then smaller, harder pastels for more detail. I was satisfied with the texture of the throw, it seems a successful representation, I wasn’t so happy with the texture of the chair. At this point I was asking myself if the picture was too bare, did I need another object, perhaps to add more contrast. One problem I identified was that the chair back was too short, in real life it is longer so I need to be more observant when sketching the preliminary image. The perspective seems a little skewed here too, I’m glad we will be working on this further in part three.

To mix things up a little I tried a version in oil pastels

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I think it looks quite messy, slightly dirty and not as clean as I would like so I returned to the chalk pastels once more. Having said that, maybe it’s more interesting because of that, it does have more movement in it but it was a quick sketch.

The angles continue to elude me and, by this stage I tried adding another element, something to contrast with the smooth chair. A pineapple seemed obvious as I had challenged myself previously to draw one and enjoyed it so set about drawing it again, this time in colour.

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chair with throw and pineapple in chalk pastels

I added more colour to the background and smudged it for a softer effect, choosing blue to contrast with the yellows of the chair and the fruit. I liked the overall colours and felt the sketch was progressing. The proportions are better, the textures work quite well.

One thing that was worrying me was there wasn’t a lot of difference in composition so I spent some time taking lots of photos of the chair in different positions.

Evidently I have one particular composition I keep coming back to so thought I should try something different. The options were to zoom in and draw a close-up or to uncover more of the seat, reveal another leg/arm of the chair, did it need another vertical line adding for a believable structure?

So whilst my intention was to draw a close-up it didn’t quite work out that well, the resulting image was not that much different from earlier versions, although I uncovered the other side of the chair, adding a vertical counterpoint.

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chair with throw and pineapple in chalk pastels

 

I did not like this drawing at all. I think you can tell I was feeling challenged and a little frustrated. I questioned my efforts and wavered about whether to keep pursuing this idea or start a completely new drawing.

By the following day I decided I really would draw a close-up version before abandoning the idea altogether. This time I made myself a couple of viewfinders. Feeling at an impasse,  I also changed the format from portrait to landscape. Instead of charcoal as an under sketch, I used one of the brown colours, having realised that the charcoal was leaving a dirty tone that didn’t work well here.

One of the dangers of pastels is your colours mix on the paper, which works wonderfully in some instances and messes everything up in others! Because of this there were areas that had to be worked into again and again as it was a struggle to keep it completely clean.

Here is the final version

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final version of chair with throw and pineapple in chalk pastels

Ultimately I am happy with the overall result. I like the palette of colours together, it’s a much brighter image than I had intended but I like the contrast of the blue and orange with the yellow/orange of the pineapple.

The fabric came out well, I think it looks fluffy and a bit unruly in capturing the folds. The pineapple does not appear quite right in its angles but I like the textures of it. There is an interesting mixture of angles, the landscape view gives an interesting perspective on the still life interior.

  • use of colour

In planning this I went with the colours that seemed to represent the objects as they are in real life, apart from the background which is, in fact, grey. The reason for this choice was to help recede the background and to give it a little interest, in contrasting with the yellows of the fruit and the chair. The colour shows depth and tones to effectively represent this image.

  • most appropriate medium for the subject

Pastels seemed most appropriate for this colour drawing, they were challenging to use and I have learnt more about them through this assignment. There is more to learn and I am excited to try a different technique next time, using the information I have obtained through practice. It is possible to create light and shade, tone and contrast and think I have achieved that to some extent. It made me learn about different mark marking techniques which will be relevant to other materials.

  • Composition and context

I explained my process of getting from a chair to a chair with a throw and a pineapple and, whilst there is no significance to the objects, they don’t look awkward together, they sit together rather nicely, perhaps because of their contrasting elements. I enjoyed researching other artists’ chairs, most notably Van Gogh and Gerhard Richter.

  • Mark-making and contrast of line and tone

This at first was challenging but I learnt to use the hard side of the pastels to add finer details. I did try different techniques but I’m not content that I have exhausted this area, there is definitely more to learn. What I did use was contrast of colour in areas, I used a blue to recede the shadows more and used them in the background. I used a different mark for the background as this added some interest and served as a additional contrast to the soft material.

  • Accurate and expressive depiction of form

I’m still learning how to be expressive and I hope I am adding some expression to my work, this is perhaps a subjective opinion though so I will listen to all feedback with interest. Is it accurate? Yes I think it is as accurate as I could manage right now, given that I am learning to handle new materials this is not without a challenge, but I quite like those.  I have commented on the areas that perhaps didn’t work well, the pineapple doesn’t look convincing, this was challenging as it is on an angle, but I like the different angles in the piece so wanted to keep going with it. The chair and the fabric turned out quite well, the fabric better than I thought.

  • Experimentation with idea, material and method

I thought it was an interesting idea to use the chair, especially as it has such a history in art practice, also it’s such a fundamental object that I haven’t really spent much time observing so it was refreshing to look at it again, an object I have seen a million times, with open eyes. This seems essential to making art, learning how to look at things differently.

The method I employed seems a fairly standard one, although I endeavoured to draw more sketches in my sketch book. An interesting challenge I set was to draw a chair over and over again from multiple viewpoints over the same page. Whilst it looks a bit of a mess, I enjoyed it and will draw it again perhaps with a different material. This was a gradual process which employed a lot of thinking and research, more than my previous assignment. For this alone I am content with the progress I have made.

In terms of assessment criteria

  • Demonstration of technical and visual skills

I still find it quite hard to evaluate my own skills, I can only say really that I think I am improving but am not yet at the standard that I hope to be.

  • Quality of outcome

Whilst the quality is the best that I can do at this stage, I am relatively happy with the outcome but hope to continue to improve.

  • Demonstration of creativity

Again, a subjective statement, this is an area I need to improve on. Whilst I am creating drawings I probably am not creative enough. I know that when I read other blogs I am often blown away by other peoples’ art work but I do read them often and try to absorb all the different techniques and materials that people use. This is a steep learning curve, I often have to google products I’m not familiar with but I am constantly learning because of it. I need to be more creative and apply this to my own work.

  • Context reflection

I don’t really understand what this means but I am definitely learning through this process. It’s difficult because there is no right and wrong in the learning process but I do feel like I need more guidance so am happy to get my tutor’s feedback

Footnotes

  1. Newton, B.B. (2013) Pastel drawing: expert answers to the questions every artist asks. Hauppauge, NY: Barron’s

Still Life in Tone Using Colour

Of course I knew colour was coming soon and at first I was excited to play around with it but then I was apprehensive. Partly this is due to getting used to handling new media and not really having a clue but also, after a few sketches, I was generally unimpressed with my efforts. I’m not sure if there is a mental block that I need to overcome but this week has been a challenging one.

I decided to start with oil pastels as I could sweep them across the page in broad strokes of colour as directed. For a change, I elevated my still life arrangement and placed them on a box for a slightly different view. The oil pastels were not enjoyable to use, they felt hard and sticky, not smooth as I had imagined. I struggled with them for a while, then googled how to use them and tried using my fingers to move the pigment around a bit, which had a very limited success. Sadly, although I worked fast and spontaneous as instructed, I thought the end result was rather childlike.

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Oil pastels

Feeling a bit discontented, I reverted to compressed charcoals, and drew on black sugar paper as I felt I needed to locate myself again, trying to get shapes and tone correct.

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compressed charcoal

Working fast and loosely, I think these shapes are more convincing and I’m happy that I made a range of different marks, this is something I need to expand on but it’s not coming naturally. The proportions are not quite right but I decided speed was more important. I changed the arrangement and made sure the tea spout was not getting lost in the carafe.

Next, I tried conté sticks, trying to keep it fast and free. After doing this one, I re-read the exercise and felt like I wasn’t really happy with the results. Felt a little frustrated but figured I just needed to keep trying.

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conte sticks

The next day I decided I would quickly rework the two drawings before I tried something else, making sure not to spend too much time on them.

This is the reworked oil pastel

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reworked oil pastels

I don’t think I’m ever going to love this but am happier with the tea pot and the carafe. Now that I’ve photographed and uploaded this, I don’t think the jug works, but I think the shapes are more solid than before.

I definitely had problems with the restrictions of the media, I really wanted to get a brush and some turps and work into it, but then it would be a painting no? As I have a tendency to spend too long working detail into drawing and sketching, I was determined not to spend hours over it thus overworking it. I’ve only achieved a very limited amount of depth, purely by placing the carafe at the back.

Being restricted to line makes it seem quite stiff and artificial, obviously the colours contribute to that too but that seems to be the point of the exercise, it doesn’t say to represent the colours realistically. I found the example by Michael Coombes to be misleading, as it doesn’t seem messy and spontaneous to me and has clearly used many different colours.

The use of colour at first distracted me but I don’t think it adds anything to this drawing.

I also reworked the conté stick drawing

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reworked conte sticks

Finally an improvement, this time I am happier with the jug and the carafe, they look more solidly in place and appear to exist as real objects, more so than the previous drawing. Once I added the edge of the table, and more contrast there seems to be a better sense of depth. Again, the proportions are slightly off but I was trying to be fast and not overdo it.  I think the line works better, the curved shapes in the carafe give it more definition and in the jug, the teapot seems to be standing upright so the effects have worked somewhat.

Having reviewed this again, I’m still not sure I have successfully completed this exercise, especially when viewing the example by Michael Coombs. It seems to me that his drawing is not a fast sketch but rather a detailed drawing that uses many different colours rather than the three we were asked to use. The example given is not messy and energetic but rather controlled and, I’m guessing probably took a long time to complete.

As I was feeling unsure about this exercise I did it again! This time with a lovely set of Unison soft pastels, they are thick and chunky and glide over the paper leaving a lot of colour behind.

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soft pastels

It’s far from perfect but it is messy, and has sweeps of colour. I couldn’t really put any more pigment over it, it is so thick already but I changed the direction of my marks to add solidity and definition in the background. I can see I need to work on tone, but this was quite a restrictive exercise, only using 3 colours, but the colour does add something expressive. I feel like there is some emotion now, it’s a happy drawing of a sunny jug of flowers, it was sunny when I drew it. It was hard to add more depth, although I did try, the pastels are so chunky and it was hard to add a lot of contrast. I kept the composition very simple as I knew it would be very difficult to draw a lot of detail with the chunky pastels and I would argue that this adds to the jovial mood.

Using colour was most definitely challenging, at one point I wavered and reverted back to black and white as I felt a bit lost. I do find the black and white drawings useful to place everything on the page, and when deciding on the composition too. I wouldn’t say I was completely comfortable using colour yet, there is a long road ahead.